We can state, without the risk of being contradicted, that the building history is basically connected to the masonry technology. Until the discovery of concrete, the biggest architectural, engineering or military projects were realized with ceramic masonry or of stone. Even if after the discovery of the armed concrete one could notice a significant reduction of the volume of masonry building, in the last period, together with the limitation of the energetic resources, new events opened for masonry as a building material adapted to different requirements. SICERAM S.A. produces a large series of materials for masonry, starting from the simple full brick to the revolutionary system TERMOBLOC®, ceramic floors and – in the near future – bulkheads.
The TERMOBLOC® masonry system shows real advantages compared to the classic masonry:
» it ensures a thermal and sound isolation, first thanks to the large number of gaps and secondly because of the dimensional precision
» leads to an important material economy (mortar), transportation or manual labor
» has a greater resistance to compression, which ensures the satisfaction of all the requirements;
» has an optimal price.
For our products to correspond exactly to Your requirements, some rules must be followed, as follows:
1. The masonry may have a carrying or non-carrying function
The minimal thickness of the carrying walls is 25 cm. When the thickness of the outer walls must be set, there must be fulfilled the requirements regarding the thermal isolation, sonic isolation and the fire prevention. It is recommended that in the areas with high seismicity, for carrying masonry to be used only the products with a gap volume below 50%. The ones with gap volume below 60% can be used for carrying masonry in the areas with low seismic risk. Products with gap volume above 60% should be used only for non-carrying masonry. The most common solution is: outside wall of 30 cm made of TERMOBLOC® T30, solution that is not the best from thermal point of view, for climate conditions form Romania. The optimal solution from this point of view we consider it to be the outside wall of 38 cm made of TERMOBLOC T38.
The ideal solution for a double outside wall: the inner wall made of TERMOBLOC® T30, an air gap or an isolation of 4-5 cm and the outer wall made of TERMOBLOC® T12 or, if no plaster is to be used, a brick to correspond to the requirements of a visible masonry.
2. Choosing the masonry mortars
is determined by the physical and mechanical exigencies of the masonry element, according to the its role in building and its position (basement, elevation, internal or external).
The role of the mortar is to bind the blocks through adhesion and friction, thus leading to a masonry as a compound material, monolithic. Through the mortar is transmissible and more uniformly distributed, from block to block, the masonry efforts. With the high relative absorption of water of our products in our mind, it is recommended to work with mortars richer in lime (chalk), with a smoother granulation and with addition of plasticizers, thus increasing the capacity of retaining water and, implicitly, the laborness.
The high resistance of the masonry is obtained by utilizing some horizontal lines of mortar most reduced as possible and at a lower proportion between the thickness and the height of the row. In practice, the thickness of the line must be as uniform as possible and not to overcome 10 mm. An overcome with 30 % of the thickness of the line can reduce the resistance of the masonry with approximately 15 %. The mortar lines, both horizontal and vertical can be interrupted in such way so that they form two parallel rows with a minimal distance of 1/3 of the wall thickness. An interruption of the mortar of even 10 mm can lead to an improvement of the thermal characteristics of the wall. In this case, at the carrying masonry, the quality of the mortar must be respected. The thickness of the vertical line will not exceed 15 mm. The elements of the masonry will be mounted in such way so that they assure the links between successive rows.
3. It is ideal that in designing to take into consideration the dimensions of the masonry elements
, in order to prevent too many cuts, so that an entire row be formed only by whole bricks and the height of the building be a multiple of the element height plus the mortar. In this case, to reach the wanted dimension is necessary a smaller distance than the height of the brick, the same type of brick will be used, cut to the right height. It is not recommended the usage of another type of bricks. In the support area, the support length has to be minimum 2/3 of the wall thickness and at the contact surface, the edge elements must be a whole.
4. When the products are mounted in armed concrete frames, this one must be isolated, generally, by a material of the same type as the masonry to avoid forming a thermal bridge and, in order to avoid appearing of the cleaves (cracks) a wire net or a fiber-glass will be mounted.
5. The plasters are to be executed in three layers only
after the masonry has settled down, at some waiting periods (according to the table and the drawing):
6. It is recommended that the masonry elements be protected, from rain especially
At storage and mounting, as well. Once the water infiltrated, it can create multiple issues in time, because once the product is mounted, is not dismounted without difficulty.
7. The ceramics masonry has a certain permeability to vapors
Tthe fact that it breaths represents one of its basic qualities for Your own good health and comfort. This quality can be cancelled by the usage of the plastic mortar or other materials that can be applied for a thermal isolation, waterproof of very resistant to water vapors trespassing, which can have disastrous effects for the building.